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HCL interview question



STP/RSTP/MSTP

43. What is RSTP?
44. Can we run STP and RSTP in a same box?
45. Difference between STP and RSTP?
46. What are the different port role in STP and RSTP?
47. What are the different states of STP?
48. What is destination MAC for STP?
49. How frequent the STP information will be exchanged ?
50. Whether the default hello timer value is same across all STP,RSTP and MSTP ?
51. How a switch will identify that it has received a STP packet ?
52. What is the Multicast address used in STP ?
53. What is MSTP ?
54. When you connect two redundant links of switch to hub to form a loop , and when the switch receives its own BPDU what it will do.
55. Why we are going to RSTP?

L2.MPLS
56. MPLS-need of MPLS and how does it works?
57. How packets are forwarded in MPLS network?

L3
58. How the ping works from the below scenerio. Very thorough – till packet level to be explained.
10.10.10.1/24 10.10.10.2/16
Host A Switch Host B
a. From Host A to Host B
b. From Host B to Host A
59. What is the destination IP for OSPF hello packets?
60. What is the destination MAC for OSPF hello packets?
61. How the OSPF hello packets sent in NBMA?
62. What are the different connection domains that can be used for OSPF?
63. Explain the fields in IP header?
64. What field in the IP header decides the OSPF packet ?
65. What is the protocol number for OSPF?
66. How BGP is described in IP header?
67. How does traceroute happens?
68. How the ping happens from host A to Host B in below scenerio?
Host A ————– Router1 ——————–Router2———————Host B
69. Does Multicast address be used as destination address to communicate between VLANS?
70. What is IP fragmentation? Where it will be done? And need of IP fragmentation? What are the fields get changed when IP fragmentation occurs?
71. Need for offset in IP header?
72. Explain the step by step actions taking place when we type www.xyz.com in IE browser?
73. OSPF states-explain what happens in each state?
74. How inter-VLAN communication happens?
75. What is ARP?
76. What is VLSM?
77. What will be the default Gateway for the client connected to VRRP network?
78. Ipv4 classes and private addresses range
79. multicast address used in OSPF LSP
80. how DIS will be elected in ISIS
81. basics of BGP and EIGRP
82. Out of all routing protocol which one would be preferable in small/big network
83. if two routing protocols are implemented in same network which one would be proffered for routing
84. port number associated with BGP
85. if on a link in ospf network both router will be given priority= 0, how LSP exchanges will happen
86. What is routing protocol and routed protocol?
87. In a domain of OSPF and RIP are running simultaneously then which protocol will take control? Why?
88. What is layer2 and layer3 do? Why layer3 used?
89. Why IP address when already has MAC address in LAN?
90. How router knows that IP belongs to its own network.
91. What is NAT and what are the different types of NAT and explain them in brief ?
92. Can a L2 switch communicate between vlans?
93. Difference between L3 switch and a Router
94. OSPF, RIP protocols
95. List the sequence of events when google.com is typed
96. What are different stages of DHCP?
97. OSPF process,Types of lsa’s in ospf
98. configuration of ospf in juniper and cisco routers
99. configuration of inter vlan routing
100. ospf protocol number,how many instances cancreate in cisco router
101. Which protocol cannot be blocked by Access control list?
102. Explain inter VLAN communication?
103. In Ethernet frame, how do you identify the IP packet and how does it represent the upper layer protocols say with example?
104. What is the protocol number for OSPF in IP packet?
105. How do you design a network which comprises of more than 10 routers using RIP?
106. Main differences between RIP1 & RIP2?
107. Advertisement addresses used in RIP v2, OSPF ?
103.What is purpose of NSSA in OSPF? Options used by NSSA?
104. OSPF virtual links. Purpose and where useful.
105. PIM-SM – RP election, how (*,G) joins are sent, RPF check, Source registration
106. PIM-SM – How RPT to SPT happens (RPF check). What if intermediate routers have hosts connected to them.
107. How pruning happens in PIM-SM? What happens when intermediate routers on prune path have hosts connected?
108. Differences between IGMP v1, v2 and v3.
109. Basics of upstream and downstream routers – how they are selected.

L4
110. How TCP 3 way handshake happens?
111. How TCP connection will tear down gracefully?
112. How Congestion control happens in TCP?
113. What is windowing in TCP ?
114. What are the issues that may arise with TCP windowing?

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